Catalan Atlas, 14th century
Catalan Atlas, 14th century. The 6-page Catalan Atlas (1375) was produced on vellum by the Jewish cartographer Abraham Cresques. It was commissioned by the rulers of the Kingdom of Aragon (north-eastern Spain). Two pages are on cosmography, and four on geography. This page shows the five known planets (plus the Moon and Sun) orbiting the Earth, the zodiac, moon phases, calendars, and the four seasons. The text is in Catalan. This version is a facsimile (exact reproduction) produced in 1959 by the Spanish scholars Joan Vernet and David Romano. The facsimile pages have been illuminated by hand in colour and gold leaf
© LIBRARY OF CONGRESS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Baruch Spinoza, caricature
Baruch Spinoza. Caricature of the Dutch philosopher Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677). Spinoza is considered to be one of Western philosophy's most important philosophers. He believed that nothing exists independently except for God, and that everything that exists does so as a part of God. He considered the Universe and Nature to be God, rather than the personalised Judeo-Christian deity. He was expelled from Holland's Jewish community for these heretical views. His seminal work, Ethics (1677), outlined these views and has become one of the most important early modern philosophical works
© GARY BROWN/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
David slings the stone by J James Tissot - Bible
David slings the stone by J James Tissot. Illustration to book of Samuel (I), 17.49: And David put his hand in his bag, and took thence a stone, and slang it, and smote the Philistine in his forehead, that the stone sunk into his forehead; and he fell upon his face to the earth'. David defeats Goliath during a battle between the Israelites under Saul and the Philistines in the Valley of Elah. JJT: French painter, 15 October 1836 - 8 August 1902"