1775 Captain James Cook explorer
James Cook, Captain of HMS Barc Endeavour (b. 7th November 1728 - d. 14th February 1779). Steel engraving by E. Scriven 1833 with later hand colouring, after the painting by N. Dance 1775/6 in the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich. Dance's painting was considered "an excellent likeness" at the time. Explorer, navigator and cartographer, Cook's voyages to the South Seas were the foremost scientific explorations of the 18th century. He was accompanied on his first voyage by botanist (and later President of the Royal Society) Joseph Banks who commissioned the painting upon which this engraving is based. His crew became the first Europeans to see Australia's eastern shore. During later voyages he looked for the Antarctic continent and searched for the northwest passage, charting and discovering islands as he went. He was killed while ashore in Hawaii during a dispute with its inhabitants.
© This image is copyright Paul D. Stewart 2009. Do not reproduce without permission of the photographer at Stewartpauld@aol.com.
Second Byrd Antarctic Expedition, 1933-35
Second Byrd Antarctic Expedition, historical map. This expedition took place between 1933 and 1935, and followed an earlier expedition from 1928 to 1930. It was led by the US polar explorer and naval officer Richard Evelyn Byrd (1888-1957, depicted at upper right). On these, and later expeditions, Byrd used ships, aeroplanes and dog sleds to establish Antarctic bases. The Byrd expeditions laid the foundations for Operation Highjump, during World War II, and the later Operation Deep Freeze that established permanent bases in Antarctica in the 1950s. The inset at upper left shows the routes taken from the USA and New Zealand. The inset at lower right shows the Bay of Whales and the Ross Ice Shelf.
© LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, GEOGRAPHY AND MAP DIVISION/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
'The Second Western Party The Day They Were Picked Up By The Ship', 1912, (1913)
'The Second Western Party The Day They Were Picked Up By The Ship: Taylor, Debenham, Gran and Forde', 1913. The return of the Western Geological Party: geologists Frank Debenham and T.Griffith-Taylor, ski expert Tryggve Gran and petty officer Robert Forde standing on the deck of the 'Terra Nova'. The final expedition of British Antarctic explorer Captain Robert Falcon Scott (1868-1912) left London on 1 June 1910 bound for the South Pole. The Terra Nova Expedition, officially the British Antarctic Expedition (1910-1913), included a geologist, a zoologist, a surgeon, a photographer, an engineer, a ski expert, a meteorologist and a physicist among others. Scott wished to continue the scientific work that he had begun when leading the Discovery Expedition to the Antarctic in 1901-04. He also wanted to be the first to reach the geographic South Pole. Scott, accompanied by Dr Edward Wilson, Captain Lawrence Oates, Lieutenant Henry Bowers and Petty Officer Edgar Evans, reached the Pole on 17 January 1912, only to find that the Norwegian expedition under Amundsen had beaten them to their objective by a month. Delayed by blizzards, and running out of supplies, Scott and the remainder of his team died at the end of March. Their bodies and diaries were found eight months later. From Scott's Last Expedition, Volume II. [Smith, Elder & Co., London, 1913]
© The Print Collector / Heritage-Images